Wind Farm Information

Offshore Wind Farm Update #6

The Offshore Wind Farm Round-Ups periodically provide a review of recent research efforts in which the effects of offshore wind farms have been studied. In addition, in response to readers’ suggestions and questions, Round Ups occasionally include factual, clarifying information.

Research included in Round-Ups points you in the direction of the science and assumes no point of view one way or the other about the presence of offshore wind farms off our shore. Likewise, clarifications are provided without editorial comment; they are there for you to consider so you can draw your own conclusions.
Click on the link to jump to a section:
Questions about the decommissioning process
Questions about the distance between the Atlantic Shore project and the shore

“Are the wind turbines there forever?”
(and other questions from readers)

Once built, will the wind turbines ever go away? Yes, the poles, the blades and the part of the foundations above the ocean floor will. All of these structures are required to be removed by Atlantic Shores at the end of the lease. No, for the part of the foundation that sits under the ocean floor.

Is that removal process mandatory? Yes. It is part of every offshore wind farm lease awarded by the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (“BOEM”), including Atlantic Shores’ lease for the wind farm off the coast of LBI.

When is that action required? At the end of the lease and it must be completed within two years of the lease’s end. Atlantic Shore’s lease is for an operating term of twenty-five years.

What does decommissioning mean? Decommissioning is the term used by the BOEM to describe the process of deconstructing the wind turbines and removing them from the ocean.

What exactly happens during the decommissioning process? From Section 6.1 “Decommissioning Requirements” in the Atlantic Shores Construction and Operations Plan (“COP”) submitted to BOEM and available on its website (link below):

“Atlantic Shores will be required to remove all facilities, projects, cables, pipelines, and obstructions and clear the seabed of all obstructions created by activities on the leased area, including any project easements(s).”

Can you be more specific? Yes. The following components are involved:

  • The wind turbines themselves: They are first drained, according to specific, established procedures, and then cables are disconnected. When that is completed, the components of the wind turbines (i.e., blades, rotor, nacelle and tower) are disassembled and removed from their foundations, shipped to shore, and recycled or scrapped.
  • Offshore substations: Cables are first disconnected and then the topsides are disassembled and removed from their foundations, shipped to shore, and recycled or scrapped. In accordance with the specific regulations around disposal, equipment in the station is drained of any fluids, which is collected and then properly disposed of or recycled.
  • Foundations: They are cut below the mudline (sea floor) and then they are completely removed above that cut. After the foundation is removed, any collected sediment is placed in the resulting depression using a vacuum pump, diver, remotely-operated hoses or all of those options.
  • Offshore cables: Cables will either be retired in place or removed from the seabed. The decision regarding whether to remove these cables and any overlying cable protection will be made based on future environmental assessments and consultations with federal, state, and municipal resource agencies. For example, if cable protection is functioning as reef habitat, it may be less disruptive and more beneficial to leave such structure undisturbed on the seabed.

For a complete explanation of this process, access Section 6.2
“Decommissioning Activities” in the COP by clicking on the following link and
then scrolling down to Section 6.2:

https://www.boem.gov/sites/default/files/documents/renewable-energy/state-activities/Atlantic-Shores-COP-Volume-1-Project-Description.PDF

Can anything be recycled? Yes. From Section 6.2 of the COP: “When possible, the Projects’ components removed during decommissioning will be recycled (for example, steel foundation components). However, some materials may have no scrap value or capability to be recycled (for example, fiberglass components in the wind turbine generator). These materials would be broken down and disposed of at an approved onshore solid waste facility.”

Speaking of recycling, below is a link to a description of Vestas’ recycling program. This information is relevant because last week, Atlantic Shores announced its selection of Vestas, not GE, as the supplier of the wind turbines for this project.
https://www.vestas.com/en/sustainability/environment/zero-waste

Below is a link to Atlantic Shores’ October 6, 2022 press release about Vestas:
https://www.atlanticshoreswind.com/vestas-and-atlantic-shores/

Could Atlantic Shore’s lease be extended? Yes. The 25-year operating term may be extended or otherwise modified in accordance with applicable federal regulations.

Be aware, however, that the wind farm has been designed with a defined life cycle. As stated in the COP, “Once commissioned, the wind farm is designed to operate for 30 years” (Section 5.0 Construction and Operations, page E-8).

What happens if Atlantic Shores, for any reason, runs short of money at the end of the lease and can’t pay for the decommissioning process? Even if the company were to experience financial hardship, that would not affect the decommissioning process, which would still go on as planned. All offshore wind projects are required by BOEM to post a surety bond for decommissioning and that requirement is written into Atlantic Shore’s lease in Section 10.

Access Section 10 of the lease by clicking on the following link and then scrolling down to page 5:
https://www.boem.gov/sites/default/files/documents/oil-gas-energy/leasing/OCS-A 0499 Lease.pdf

Access the entire Section 6.0 Decommissioning in the COP by clicking
on the following link and then scrolling down to Section 6.0:
https://www.boem.gov/sites/default/files/documents/renewable-energy/state-activities/Atlantic-Shores-COP-Volume-1-Project-Description.PDF

“Is the Atlantic Shores project closer
to shore than any other offshore wind farm?”

I read a statement that said the Atlantic Shores project, starting 9 miles out, is closer to shore than any other modern project in the world. Is that true? No. Below is a list of operating offshore wind farms that are closer than or the same distance from shore as the Atlantic Shore project.

  • Inch Cape: 9 miles off the eastern Scottish coast
  • Kincardine: 9 miles off the eastern Scottish coast
  • Beatrice: 8 miles off the northern Scottish coast
  • Saint-Nazaire: 7.5 – 12.4 miles off the coast of the Guérande peninsula in the northwest part of France
  • Block Island: about 3 miles off the Rhode Island coast Formosa 1: 1.25 – 4 miles off the northwest coast of Taiwan (Formosa 2, built adjacent to Formosa 1 and soon to be operational: 2.5 – 6 miles off the coast)
  • Aberdeen off the northeast coast of Scotland is literally “just off the coast,” a direct quote from its website with accompanying photos https://powerplants.vattenfall.com/aberdeen/

What is the significance of the word “modern” in that statement? Not sure. Offshore wind farms have been around for only 31 years, although the first land windmill built to generate electricity appeared in 1887.

The first offshore wind farm built anywhere in the world was the Vindeby Offshore Wind Farm one mile off the coast of the Danish island of Lolland. It was erected by Ørsted in 1991. It was decommissioned in 2017 after 25 years of useful life. Click the link below for more information about Vindeby: https://orsted.com/en/insights/white-papers/making-green-energy-affordable/1991-to-2001-the-first-offshore-wind-farms

Click the link below to access the article “History of Wind Turbines” published by Renewable Energy World November 2014 https://www.renewableenergyworld.com/storage/history-of-wind-turbines/#gref

This Round-Up was prepared by a group of writers and researchers from Long Beach Island, New Jersey. Round-Ups are distributed to the voting representatives of the eleven member organizations of the Joint Council of Taxpayers Associations of LBI (JCTA). Each taxpayer and property owners association then distributes this information to its members and the community via its regular communication methods, e.g., through newsletters; posted on websites; social media.

Questions about the content of Round-Ups and suggestions for topics to be covered in future issues can be directed to RoundUpLBI@gmail.com. The Round Up research and writing team welcomes questions and comments.


Why We Can’t Move the Wind Turbine Farther Out

Carl Menk asked why the federal Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) cannot move the wind farms 40 to 50 miles offshore, and he cites the Hornsea Wind Farm as an example (“Plea to Legislators,” 8/10). Yes, the Hornsea Farm is about 55 miles off the east coast of England. That is about one-third of the distance from England to the Netherlands. Click here to read the rest of the commentary.


With Wind Projects Looming Who’s Minding the NJ Shore?

On June 24, the federal government released a draft environmental impact statement on the Ocean Wind 1 project off South Jersey. It asked the public to review this 1,400-page document with lengthy appendices and hundreds of scientific and technical references, and provide comments within 45 days. Click Here to read the rest of the commentary.


Offshore Wind Farm Presentation PDF

Click Here to Read the Offshore Wind Form Presentation PDF – July 2022


The Offshore Wind Farm Round-Up Number 3, July 11, 2022

The Offshore Wind Farm Round-Up endeavors to periodically provide a review of recent research efforts in which the effects of offshore wind farms have been studied. Like the popular FAQ produced by a coalition of researchers and writers last year, the Round-Up points you in the direction of the science and assumes no point of view one way or the other regarding the presence of offshore wind farms off our shore. Read and draw your own conclusions.
This Round-Up edition includes links related to

  • tourism and the presence of offshore wind energy farms
  • the comparison of an image recently published in The Sandpaper from Save LBI, Inc and a publicly accessible simulation image
  • navigation lights at the base of the offshore wind turbines
  • virtual public meetings to discuss the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Ocean Wind 1 near Atlantic City (Note: This is NOT for the Atlantic Shores project)

TOURISM
Unlike the U.K. and some European countries, the United States has produced limited research focused on assessing the impact of offshore wind farms on tourism.

The Round Up research team rejected inclusion of the U.K. and European studies in our work because those studies focused on offshore wind energy farms with turbine sizes and distances from shore that are very different than the sizes and distances of the wind turbines in the Atlantic Shores Offshore Wind project.

Instead, we searched for relatively current research (published within the past four years) that focused on the impact of offshore wind farms on U.S. shore communities and regions. We only found three and the links to them are included below. We are including them at all so you can see the paucity of available studies.

Please note that we could find no studies that focus specifically on our area.

Two focused on the impact of the wind farm on tourism on Block Island. The Block Island Wind Farm, the first offshore wind farm in the United States, is located about three miles off the coast of Block Island RI; it began commercial operations December 2016. The farm consists of five 6-megawatt turbines; each turbine is 589 feet tall. Block Island, previously powered by five diesel generators which burned over 1 million gallons of fuel every year, is now powered entirely by offshore wind. 2

1) “Sustainability and tourism: the effect of the United States’ first offshore wind farm on the vacation rental market” Department of Environmental and Natural Resource Economics, University of Rhode Island, published by Resource and Energy Economics, August 20191
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0928765518302902#!

2) “Beyond the beach: Tradeoffs in tourism and recreation at the first offshore wind farm in the United States” published by Energy Research and Social Science, December 20202
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S2214629620303017
The third study assessed the impact of wind energy farms on recreational beach use along the East Coast from Cape Cod to South Carolina.

3) “Atlantic Offshore Wind Energy Development: Values and Implications for Recreation and Tourism” University of Delaware, March 20183 Funded by the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (“BOEM”) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (“NOAA”)

Access the full study by clicking on the following link:
https://espis.boem.gov/final reports/5662.pdf

HIGHLIGHTS:

  • People were questioned about their reaction to wind power projects from distances ranging from 2.5 to 20 miles offshore. Particular attention in this report is focused on the results ranging from 12.5 to 20 miles although all data are reported.
  • At 12.5 miles offshore, 20% of the respondents reported that their experience would have been worsened by the turbines, 13% reported that it would have been improved and 67% reported no effect.
  • At 20 miles, 10% reported that their experience would have been worse, 17% better and 73% no effect. A “break-even point” occurred at 15 miles, where the percentage worse and better were about the same.
  • The dominant reason reported for a worse beach experience was the visual disruption of the seascape. The dominant reason for why a beach experience would be better was knowing something good was being done for the environment.
  • Respondents were also asked about how their trip behavior might change in the presence of an offshore wind power project: trip losses, trip gains and curiosity trips.
  • The economic impact of trip gain vs. trip loss varied across all East Coast beaches. Most beaches with wind energy projects 12.5 – 20 miles off shore experienced a small loss to a net gain.
  • Visual impacts were a major concern. Most participants, however, described the project’s appearance in neutral or positive terms.

1 Authors were both in the University of Rhode Island’s Department of Environmental and Natural Resources Economics (“DENRE”) at time of the study’s publication. Andrew Carr-Harris Ph.D is currently an Economist at NOAA Fisheries at the Northeast Fisheries Science Center; Corey Lang is Professor and Graduate Program Director at the DENRE
2 Authors: Dr. Tiffany Smythe, Associate Professor, Maritime Policy, Strategy & Governance, United States Coast Guard Academy; David Bidwell & Amelia Moore, both in the Department of Marine Affairs at the University of Rhode Island; Hollie Smith, Assistant Professor of Science & Environmental Communication, University of Oregon; Jennifer McCann, Director of U.S. Coastal Programs and Extension Programs for Rhode Island Sea Grant, University of Rhode Island Coastal Resources Center, part of the Graduate School of Oceanography.
3 Authors are both at the School of Marine Science & Policy at the University of Delaware: George Parsons, Unidel E.I. du Pont Professor of Marine Studies, and Jeremy Firestone, Professor

COMPARISON OF IMAGES
THE FIRST IMAGE below is the simulation of what the wind turbines would look like from the perspective a person standing on the beach in Beach Haven and looking east at the turbines.

It is part of the Construction and Operations Plan (“COP”) submitted to the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management by Atlantic Shores September 2021.
Access the Beach Haven simulation from the COP by clicking on the link below4:

THE NEXT TWO IMAGES are what appeared in the June 22, 2022 issue of The Sandpaper (spread across the bottom portion of two pages in that issue).
Access The Sandpaper by clicking on the link below
https://www.thesandpaper.net/

You may need to have a subscription to The Sandpaper to access the June 22 issue. The Long Beach Island Library on Central Avenue in Surf City also has one copy of this issue that you may borrow to read in the library. 4

4 By clicking the link, you will arrive at Appendix II-M1: Visual Impact Assessment – Wind Turbine Area, Attachment E Visual Simulation, Photo Simulations – Beach Haven Historic District. Scroll down to page 5, which shows the simulation included below.
https://www.boem.gov/sites/default/files/documents//VIA-South-Attachment-E-Photosimulations-Part-5-BHB01.pdf

This image is the simulation in the Atlantic Shores Construction and Operations Plan:

Next two images are from The Sandpaper, published June 22, 2022, on pages 16 & 17:

NAVIGATION LIGHTING
(Lighting for ships located at the base of the turbines, not lighting for planes
See Round Up #2 for a section about aviation lighting)

❖ From Section 5.3 Lighting and Marking in the Construction and Operations Plan (“COP”) submitted to the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (“BOEM”) by Atlantic Shores Offshore Wind, September 2021.5

Access the COP by clicking on the following link:
https://www.boem.gov/sites/default/files/documents/renewable-energy/state-activities/Atlantic-Shores-COP-Volume-1-Project-Description.PDF

When you click on the link above, you end up at the COP’s cover page. Unfortunately, this writer did not have any luck jumping to Section 5.3 by using the Find field. Scrolling rapidly by dragging the gray elevator bar on the right side of the screen did the job nicely, however.

5 The COP is the Construction and Operations Plan. The COP must be approved by BOEM before Atlantic Shores may proceed.

HIGHLIGHTS

  • All wind turbines and related equipment will be equipped with marine navigation lighting in accordance with the United States Coast Guard and BOEM guidance.
  • Atlantic Shores expects to include yellow flashing lights, visible in all directions, on the base of each wind turbine foundation.
  • These lights would be visible on turbines along the perimeter of the wind farm at a range of three to five nautical miles (3.5 – 5.75 miles) and visible on interior wind turbines at a range of two nautical miles (2.3 miles).

❖ Here is what yellow navigational lighting looks like on the base of an offshore wind turbine: From sabik-offshore.com6 and From michiganseagrant.org7, respectively:

The yellow portion at the bottom of the turbine in the daylight
image is the color of the base, not a light.

6 From its website: “Sabik Offshore has been providing aids to navigation and safety lighting for over 20 years. . . . Since 2008 we have been providing aids to navigation, ID marking and aviation obstruction solutions to offshore wind farms which has turned into our primary focus and core competence.”

7 From its website: “Michigan Sea Grant is a cooperative program of the University of Michigan, Michigan State University, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. . . . Michigan Sea Grant supports a variety of research projects led by research teams based at universities in Michigan.”

VIRTUAL PUBLIC MEETINGS TO DISCUSS THE
DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT FOR OCEAN WIND 1

Note, please, that this is NOT the Atlantic Shores project

Rather, it is the Draft Environmental Impact Statement (“DEIS”) for a separate leased area to the south being built by Ǿrsted called Ocean Wind 1. This project started before Atlantic Shores’ development and Ocean Wind 1 is farther along in the approval process.

We are including mention of it at all because many people have told us that they follow Ocean Wind 1’s progress.

On June 24, 2022, BOEM8 published a Notice of Availability (“NOA”) for the Ocean Wind 1 Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) for Ocean Wind, LLC’s Proposed Wind Energy Facility Offshore New Jersey.

8 BOEM is the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management
The following documents are available for viewing.

  • Ocean Wind 1 DEIS Notice of Availability (BOEM-2022-0021)
  • Ocean Wind 1 DEIS
  • Ocean Wind 1 Construction and Operations Plan
  • Scoping Summary Report
  • Cumulative Historic Resources Visual Effects Analysis

The NOA initiates a 45-day public comment period that ends at 11:59 p.m. eastern time on August 8, 2022. During the public comment period, BOEM will be hosting three virtual public hearings where you can learn more about the project, ask questions, and provide oral testimony.
The virtual public hearings will be held on:

  • Thursday, July 14, 2022 at 1:00 PM ET
  • Wednesday, July 20, 2022 at 5:00 PM ET
  • Tuesday, July 26, 2022 at 5:00 PM ET

This Round-Up was prepared by a group of writers and researchers from Long Beach Island, New Jersey.
Round-Ups are distributed by the Joint Council of Taxpayers Associations of LBI (JCTA) to the voting representatives of its eleven member organizations, who distribute this information to the members of their individual taxpayers associations via newsletters, websites and social media.
Questions about the content of Round-Ups and suggestions for topics to be covered in future issues can be directed to RoundUpLBI@gmail.com. The Round Up research and writing team welcomes questions and comments.


The Offshore Wind Farm Round-Up Number 2, June 10, 2022

The Offshore Wind Farm Round-Up endeavors to periodically provide a review of recent research efforts in which the effects of offshore wind farms have been studied. Like the popular FAQ produced by a coalition of researchers and writers last year, the Round-Up points you in the direction of the science and assumes no point of view one way or the other regarding the presence of offshore wind farms off our shore. Read and draw your own conclusions.
This Round-Up edition includes links and information related to

  • the effect of the wind turbines on right whales
  • the impact of the wind farm on migratory birds
  • aviation lighting at night on the wind turbines
  • fact checking, per readers’ questions

RIGHT WHALES: It is unclear what effect the presence of offshore wind farms will have on the health or the migratory habits of the North American right whale population because no definitive, seminal studies have been found that have focused on these topics.
However, we do know 1) where they are and the areas off the East Coast that are the most important to them, 2) what scientists from the Anderson Cabot Center for Ocean Life at the New England Aquarium and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution have to say; 3) a new study has been proposed that specifically targets North Atlantic right whales, and 4) details about a technology system that is being developed that can find and identify whales within a specific area in real time.

1) Where They Are
Species Directory: North Atlantic Right Whale, Overview, on the website of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (“NOAA”), U.S. Department of Commerce, May 2022.

Access by clicking on the following link: https://www.fisheries.noaa.gov/species/north-atlantic-right-whale

HIGHLIGHTS:

  • North Atlantic right whales primarily occur in Atlantic coastal waters on the continental shelf, although they also are known to travel far offshore, over deep water.
  • Right whales migrate seasonally and may travel alone or in small groups. In the spring, summer and into fall, many of these whales can be found in waters off New England and further north into Canadian waters, where they feed and mate.
  • Each fall, some right whales travel more than 1,000 miles from these feeding grounds to the shallow, coastal waters of their calving grounds off of South Carolina, Georgia, and northeastern Florida, though migration patterns vary.
  • NOAA Fisheries has designated two areas as critical habitat for North Atlantic right whales. These areas provide important feeding, nursery, and calving habitat: 1) Off the coast of New England (foraging area); and 2) Off the southeast U.S. coast from Cape Fear, North Carolina, to below Cape Canaveral, Florida (calving area)

2) What Scientists Say
“Right whale coalition calls for moratorium on wind turbines to protect endangered species”, Rachael Devaney, Cope Cod Times, November 21, 2021

Access the complete article by clicking on this link: https://www.capecodtimes.com/story/news/2021/11/25/new-group-tries-stop-offshore-wind-turbine-vineyard-wind-project-protect-right-whales/8692329002/

HIGHLIGHTS
Jessica Redfern, senior scientist and Chair of the Spatial Ecology, Mapping, and Assessment Program at the Anderson Cabot Center for Ocean Life at the New England Aquarium1 in Boston:

  • She stated that the situation for right whales is dire. The latest estimates show the total right whale population at 336 in 2020, an 8% percent decrease from 2019 and a 30% decrease since 2011, according to the New England Aquarium website.
  • “One of the stressors for right whales is climate change and offshore wind is something that will help reduce climate change — which we know for sure is having negative impacts on the right whales.”
  • While the impact of offshore wind projects “remains largely unknown,” Redfern said, Vineyard Wind hopes to eliminate 1.68 million metric tons of carbon dioxide emissions annually — the equivalent of taking 325,000 cars off the road, according to Vineyard Wind’s website.
  • In order for offshore wind development to move forward, Redfern said, development must be done in a manner that “minimizes potential impacts” to the right whale and advocates for visual observations in the air and on the ocean, as well as passive acoustic monitoring.

1 From its website: “The Anderson Cabot Center for Ocean Life at the New England Aquarium is a groundbreaking initiative designed to expand the Aquarium’s cutting-edge applied marine research and data-driven conservation solutions.
Through the work of the Anderson Cabot Center, our researchers offer practical solutions to mitigate human impacts on our oceans. We promote these science-based solutions in New England and beyond, building on the Aquarium’s nearly 50-year legacy of protecting our blue planet and advocating for vital and vibrant oceans.”

Mark Baumgartner, senior scientist and marine ecologist at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution2:

  • Vessel activities and associated construction can seem alarming, but he said he doesn’t envision a lot of impact on the right whale from wind farms. The plans that he has seen for wind farm construction show the turbines about a mile apart from one another and he does not envision a lot of impact that would affect food resources. • “Offshore wind is just one more industrial activity that these animals that live in the ocean have to deal with. I absolutely understand the concern. But hopefully we are doing our part trying to help these industries figure out how to minimize their impact on a species like the right whale.”
  • “Human populations need to be less reliant on fossil fuels in order to successfully boost right whale populations. Continuing to rely on fossil fuels is not good for the planet and not good for right whales — we know that. They are likely already responding to climate change as conditions in the ecosystem change in the Gulf of Maine and in the wider northwest Atlantic Ocean.”

3) What Scientists Can Do: A New Study Has Been Proposed
On May 19, 2022, the NJ Department of Environmental Protection announced a request for proposals (“RFP”). A brief overview, reproduced below, and information about submission deadlines and contact information were also included in the announcement.

“The New Jersey Research & Monitoring Initiative is seeking proposals to provide information about the movement and distribution of marine mammals through bottom mounted archival passive acoustic monitoring (PAM). The request for proposals (RFP) details can be found at https://www.nj.gov/dep/bids.html

The waters off New Jersey’s coast are part of the migratory corridor for several baleen whale species, including the critically endangered North Atlantic Right Whale. Understanding the temporal and spatial use of the waters of the inner and outer continental shelf by these species is essential for planning mitigation measures for offshore wind development. NOAA and BOEM have jointly made recommendations for the use of PAM for monitoring and mitigation programs supporting offshore wind energy development. . . .:”

2 From its website: “Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution is the world’s leading, independent non-profit organization dedicated to ocean research, exploration and education. Our scientists and engineers push the boundaries of knowledge about the ocean to reveal its impacts on our planet and our lives.”

4) Technology: Digital Acoustic Monitoring
“Can wind developers and ocean scientists work together to get U.S. offshore wind cranking?” by Evan Lubofsky3 on the website of Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, February 6, 2019

Access the complete article by clicking the following link: https://www.whoi.edu/oceanus/feature/harnessing-the-power/

HIGHLIGHTS

  • Installing offshore wind facilities is a noisy business. When developers pile-drive turbine supports into the seabed, it radiates sound into the ocean that can interfere with the ability of whales to communicate with each other, which impacts locating mates and finding food.
  • As a result, developers are under pressure to avoid construction when marine mammals are around. They rely on the “spotter approach” i.e., human observers on boats and planes who scan wind farm construction areas during peak activity months in that area for whales, dolphins, seals, and other marine animals.
  • This spotter approach helps meet guidelines developed by the federal government aimed at mitigating noise-related impacts in the ocean, but it does not completely solve the problem — nothing stops a right whale from unexpectedly showing up in wind farm construction areas during off-peak months.
  • Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution engineers and Mark Baumgartner developed a tool known as a Digital Acoustic Monitoring (DMON) instrument. It uses a hydrophone mounted on a buoy or autonomous vehicle to listen for the telltale sounds of right whales and other marine mammals underwater. Representations of those sounds are transmitted in near real time to scientists in the lab, who use the data to determine what species are present and could be in harm’s way.
  • The data is published on a public website and pushed out to stakeholders, including developers, by text and email.
  • Baumgartner and the engineers at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution hope to work toward a new solution that puts the existing hydrophone technology on wave gliders—surfboard-looking robots that could acoustically monitor a construction area around the clock to determine the position of animals passing by.

3 Evan Lubofsky is a science writer and editor at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. From its website: “Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution is the world’s leading, independent non-profit organization dedicated to ocean research, exploration and education. Our scientists and engineers push the boundaries of knowledge about the ocean to reveal its impacts on our planet and our lives.”

MIGRATORY BIRDS: “Bat & Bird Interactions with Offshore Wind Energy Development,” U.S. Offshore Wind Synthesis of Environmental Effects Research (“SEER”)4, February 8, 20225

Access the slides of the complete presentation by clicking on this link: https://tethys.pnnl.gov/sites/default/files/events/SEER-Bat-Bird-Webinar-Slides.pdf

HIGHLIGHTS:

  • Given the limited offshore wind deployments in the U.S., potential risk can be evaluated based on information from studies in Europe, known offshore movement patterns and land-based wind farms.
  • Worldwide, studies at offshore wind farms have not reported any bat fatalities and only a handful of bird fatalities, but systematic studies have not been conducted. • The lack of data stems from the absence of a practical approach to measuring collision-related mortality offshore.
  • Conditions such as weather, time of day, visibility and farm configuration may influence avoidance rates and extent of movement around the wind farm.
  • Birds display a range of avoidance actions in response to the presence of wind turbines and wind farms: fly around them; adjust their trajectories while flying through the wind farm; miscalculate and adjust at the last second to avoid a collision with a blade; and avoid the area entirely or limit its use as an area to rest, roost or as a forage habitat.
  • Attraction to the wind farm may be associated with roosting or perching opportunities, or the creation of new favorable foraging habitat, as has been observed in Great Cormorants and Northern Gannets.
  • Seabirds with potential risk for collision include gulls, cormorants, jaegers and skuas, among others.
  • Collecting data before, during and after construction is necessary to understand changes to normal behavior, distribution and movement patterns of bats and birds. Carcass searches and the associated statistical tools used to estimate mortality at land-based wind farms are not possible at offshore wind farms.

4 From its website: “At the direction of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Wind Energy Technologies Office, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and National Renewable Energy Laboratory (“NREL”) are jointly leading a multi-year collaborative effort to facilitate knowledge transfer for offshore wind research around the world.

The U.S. Offshore Wind Synthesis of Environmental Effects Research (“SEER”) effort aims to synthesize key issues and disseminate existing knowledge about environmental effects, inform applicability to U.S. waters, and prioritize future research needs.”

5 Author: Cris Hein, Ph.D. and senior project leader at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. He has studied bat behavior and ecology for more than two decades and wind energy and wind energy issues for more than ten years. His research focuses on developing strategies to monitor and minimize wildlife interactions with wind turbines.

LIGHTS AT NIGHT:

  • How many flights actually pass by our shores? How many at night?
  • Aircraft Detection Lighting System (“ADLS”): How often would it be activated? The ADLS is a system of lights that automatically activates when an aircraft is in the vicinity; at all other times, the lights are off.
  • What kinds of night lighting are mentioned by Atlantic Shores in its Construction and Operations Plan (“COP”)?

1) Frequency Of Flights
“Air Traffic Flow Analysis”, which was commissioned and paid for by Atlantic Shores Offshore Wind, was prepared by Capital Airspace Group and published August 2021.6

Access the full analysis by clicking on this link: https://www.boem.gov/sites/default/files/documents/renewable-energy/state-activities/Appendix-II-T3-Air-Traffic-Flow-Analysis.pdf

This report is part of the Construction and Operations Plan (“COP”) submitted to the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (“BOEM”) by Atlantic Shores. That is why when you click on the link, you end up at the BOEM website where the COP is available for public scrutiny. The COP has numerous appendices attached to it, including Appendix II – T3 Air Traffic Flow Analysis, where you arrive when you click the link above.

HIGHLIGHTS:

  • Capitol Airspace conducted an air traffic flow analysis for the Atlantic Shores offshore wind project. The main area of focus was the southern portion of Atlantic Shores’ leased area, permitted in June 2021 to deliver 1,510 megawatts of wind energy to the State of New Jersey.
  • All of the data collected by the Federal Aviation Administration’s (“FAA”) National Offload Program (“NOP”) between January 1, 2019 and December 31, 2019 about aircraft activity in this area were evaluated.7 NOP collects operational data daily from existing radar systems throughout the country about all aviation and air traffic activities.
  • FAA NOP data indicate that 537 flight operated within two statute miles8 of the entire study area during this twelve-month period. That is an average of 1.47 flights per day or an average of three flights every two days.

6 Authors are uncredited; Dan Underwood and Candace Childress are the designated contact people for questions about this analysis.

Capital Airspace Group is located in Alexandria VA and describes itself on its website as follows: “Capitol Airspace is an aviation consulting firm that provides analytical, strategic, and advocacy services to airports, commercial developers, and communities around the world. Capitol Airspace specializes in Airspace, Air Traffic Control Operations, FAA Terminal Instrument Procedures (TERPS) design, ICAO Procedures for Air Navigation Services (PANS-OPS), Obstacle Evaluation (OE) and Flight Procedures Development.” http://www.capitolairspace.com/

2) Duration Of Night Lighting
“Visual Impact Assessment Wind Turbine Area Atlantic Shores Offshore Wind OCS-A 0499,” prepared by Environmental Design & Research, Landscape Architecture, Engineering & Environmental Services, D.P.C. (“EDR”)9 The report was updated March 2022.

Access the EDR report by clicking on this link: https://www.boem.gov/sites/default/files/documents/renewable-energy/state-activities/Appendix-II-M1-Visual-Impact-Assessment_0.pdf

This report is also part of the Construction and Operations Plan (“COP”) submitted to BOEM by Atlantic Shores, so by clicking the link above, you end up at the BOEM website where the COP is available for public scrutiny. You arrive at Appendix II – M1 Visual Impact Assessment when you click the link above.

The pertinent portions of this report are Section 3.2.1.2 and Section 3.3, Nighttime Visual Impact Results and General Mitigation, respectively.

HIGHLIGHTS:

  • Navigation lighting and aviation obstruction warning lights (“AOWL”) could strongly attract viewer attention in a setting that normally appears dark and undeveloped. The alternating blinking associated with navigation lights and AOWL will be distracting to viewers.
  • An Aircraft Detection Lighting System (ADLS), however, would significantly reduce the amount of time the aviation obstruction warning lights (AOWL) would be activated by detecting the presence of aircraft. If the ADLS is used, nighttime visual impacts associated with the AOWL would become intermittent and minor.
  • National Offload Program (“NOP”) data were collected and analyzed to determine when and for how long in a given year aircraft traverse within the airspace of the Atlantic Shores project during times that would require the aviation obstruction warning lights (AOWL) to be activated.
  • Based on past flight data, the aviation obstruction warning lights (AOWL) would be activated for a total of approximately 10.9 hours over a 1-year period if an aircraft detection lighting system (ADLS) was in place. The maximum monthly activation time would occur in November when past flight data suggest activation times would increase to approximately 2 hours and 45 minutes over the entire month. April, May, June, August and September had the lowest activation frequency with average activation time of 21 minutes per month.
  • Considering the low frequency of light activation, nighttime visual impacts associated with the aviation obstruction lights would become intermittent and minor.

7 Pre-covid, before the world paused

8 A statute mile is a land mile (5,280 feet), as opposed to a nautical mile which is used to measure distances on the ocean and relies on a different calculation base.

9 Individual authors are uncredited. EDR’s website is https://www.edrdpc.com/

3) Aviation Lighting At Night In Atlantic Shores’ COP10
Section 5.3 “Lighting and Marking,” Atlantic Shores Offshore Wind Construction and Operations Plan Lease Area OCS-A 0499, Volume I: Project Information, September 2021

Access this section and the entire COP by clicking on the following link: https://www.boem.gov/sites/default/files/documents/renewable-energy/state-activities/Atlantic-Shores-COP-Volume-1-Project-Description.PDF

HIGHLIGHTS:

  • All wind turbines will contain aviation obstruction lights, which, based on current guidance, will include red flashing lights at the center of the blades with an additional level of red lights on the tower, visible by a pilot approaching from any direction.
  • Atlantic Shores is considering use of an Aircraft Detection Lighting System (ADLS) subject to FAA and BOEM approval, which could substantially reduce the amount of time that aviation obstruction lights are actually illuminated.

Update
In a March 17, 2022 email to the Round Up production team, Karen Hershey, Atlantic Shores Community Liaison Officer, wrote the following:

“I can confirm that Atlantic Shores intends to seek FAA and BOEM approval for the ADLS. Again, it’s up to the FAA in consultation with BOEM to determine if it can be safely employed based on area aviation; however, Atlantic Shores’ studies indicate that ADLS is possible for this project.”

10 The COP is the Construction and Operations Plan submitted to the BOEM by Atlantic Shores. It must be approved by BOEM before Atlantic Shores may proceed.

FACT CHECKING, PER READERS’ QUESTIONS: Many LBI residents had questions about the survey referenced in a letter to the editor, titled “Killer Wind”, published on page 6 of The Sandpaper on May 18, 2022. Specifically, they were interested in verifying the number of people the survey was originally sent to, understanding how many people actually responded and finding out who initiated it.

Who sent it? The survey was sent out by Save LBI Inc. a k a LBI Coalition for Wind Without Impact.11

To how many people was it sent? The spokesperson for Save LBI Inc. reported that the only database they were able to access was for prior renters; the source of the database and the number of email addresses contained in that database were not shared.

How many responses were actually received? Each question in the six-question survey garnered between 608 – 614 responses, which, based on a database of 10,000, is a response rate of 6%.

Here are the survey’s questions, answer options and percent of respondents who checked each option:

Question: Before starting the survey, were you aware that the federal government and some states on the Atlantic coast are considering offshore wind power as an energy source?
60% yes
39% no

Question: Have you ever seen first-hand a land-based or ocean-based wind power project?
63% yes
36% no

Question: People have different attitudes towards wind power as a source of energy in the United States. Some favorite it, others do not. Where do you stand on wind power as a source of energy in the United States?
35% favor
21% somewhat favor
16% neither favor nor oppose
10% somewhat oppose
15% oppose

Question: Thinking about the simulation you just viewed, how would the presence of the wind farm have affected your experience/enjoyment on your last vacation to LBI? It would have made my experience/enjoyment:
46% worse
16% somewhat worse
29% neither better nor worse
1% somewhat better
5% better

Question: Assuming you had been aware of the wind farm BEFORE taking your last vacation to Long Beach Island, would its presence have caused you to rent at another beach town or vacation somewhere else instead?
50% I would have still rented on Long Beach Island
39% I would have rented at another beach town instead
10% I would have taken a different type of vacation

Question: What is your view regarding placing wind turbine projects like this farther out from shore so they cannot be seen?
45% strongly favor that
26% favor that
24% have no opinion on that
3% can place them closer to shore

11 From its website: “We are proponents of a sensible approach to wind energy and alternative/renewable energy solutions. However, we are opposed to the location, scope and size of this project as currently proposed by Atlantic Shores.” See more by clicking on this link: https://www.savelbi.org/about

This Round-Up was prepared by a group of writers and researchers from Long Beach Island, New Jersey. Round-Ups are distributed by the Joint Council of Taxpayers Associations of LBI (JCTA) to the voting representatives of its eleven member organizations, who distribute this information to the members of their individual taxpayer or property owner associations via newsletters, websites and social media.

Questions about the content of Round-Ups and suggestions for topics to be covered in future issues can be directed to readers’ local taxpayer or property owner associations.


Supporting and Opposing Forces Line Up in Legal Challenge to Offshore Wind Farms

By Gina G. Scala – The SandPaper
While the federal government filed a motion to dismiss a lawsuit initiated earlier this year by an LBI grassroots organization for what it calls a failure to comply with national environmental laws during the selection process for offshore turbine placement, wind energy trade groups intend to seek permission to join the suit.
Bob Stern, president of Save Long Beach Island Inc., said the nonprofit plans to oppose the effort of the trade groups filing an amicus curiae (literally, friend of the court) brief. Click Here to read the full article.


The Offshore Wind Farm Round-Up – JCTA
Number 1 May 9, 2022

The Offshore Wind Farm Round-Up endeavors to periodically provide a review of recent research efforts in which the effects of offshore wind farms have been studied. Like its predecessor — the popular FAQ produced by a coalition of researchers and writers last updated October 2021 — the Round-Up points you in the direction of the science and assumes no point of view one way or the other regarding the presence of offshore wind farms off our shore. Read and draw your own conclusions.
This Round-Up edition includes links related to the

  • effect of noise on marine life
  • cost of electricity
  • impact of turbines on the Cold Pool
  • Rutgers study on the visibility of the wind turbines
  • lawsuit filed against Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (“BOEM”)

The next Round-UP also offers links to a variety of information sources, including studies about right whales and migratory birds, more about visibility and information about the turbines that will be used in the first build-out area of Atlantic Shore’s leased area.

NOISE IMPACT: “How loud is the underwater noise from operating offshore wind turbines?” published in The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, November 2020.1
1 Authors: Jakob Tougaard, Professor & Senior Researcher, Department of Ecoscience – Marine Mammal Research, Aarhus University; Line Hermannsen Ph.D in Marine Bioacoustics, Aarhus University; Peter T. Madsen, Professor Department of Biology – Zoophysiology, Aarhus University. The university is located in Aarhus, Denmark.
Access the full article by clicking on this link: https://asa.scitation.org/doi/10.1121/10.0002453

HIGHLIGHTS:

  • Past research cited in this article found that underwater noise radiating from individual wind turbines is low compared to the noise radiating from cargo ships; this current study concludes that is still the case, despite turbines now being larger and more measurements being available.
  • The combined source level of a large wind farm is smaller or comparable to that of a large cargo ship.
  • However, the cumulative contribution to the soundscape from multiple turbines within a wind farm and the fact that wind farms occupy larger and larger fractions of coastal and shelf waters means that their combined contribution of noise cannot be ignored.
  • The contribution from wind turbines can, in particular, be expected to be significant in areas with low natural ambient noise and with low levels of ship traffic, possibly large enough to raise concern for negative effects on species of fish and marine mammals.

1 Authors: Jakob Tougaard, Professor & Senior Researcher, Department of Ecoscience – Marine Mammal Research, Aarhus University; Line Hermannsen Ph.D in Marine
Bioacoustics, Aarhus University; Peter T. Madsen, Professor Department of Biology –
Zoophysiology, Aarhus University. The university is located in Aarhus, Denmark.

COST OF ELECTRICITY: “Offshore Wind Procurement Options for Delaware” prepared by the Special Initiative of Offshore Wind (“SIOW”) at the University of Delaware for the State of Delaware2. Published February 2022 and updated in early April 2022.
2 Authors (all at the University of Delaware): Willett Kempton, Professor, School of Marine Science & Policy; Amy Bosteels, Marine Policy; and Kris Ohleth, Director, SIOW, an independent project at the University of Delaware’s College of Earth, Ocean and Environment that supports the advancement of offshore wind as part of a comprehensive solution to the most pressing energy problems facing the United States.
The peer-reviewed research compares the cost of electricity from offshore wind to the cost of traditional power sources. The report further assesses the health and carbon costs of offshore wind in comparison to those traditional power sources.
Access the full report by clicking on this link: https://sites.udel.edu/ceoe-siow/files/2022/04/DE-OSWProcurement-SIOW-27Feb2022-3.pdf

HIGHLIGHTS:

  • Offshore wind contracts across five US states were analyzed. Lower prices for electric power result from more recent projects, turbines of 10 MW or larger, projects of at least 800 MW in size and from bid evaluations that prioritize least cost.
  • The study concluded that today’s US offshore wind power prices fall within the range of wholesale power being purchased for the state of Delaware now.
  • The Federal government now provides financial cost guidance for health and climate change damage. When added to the market costs of both offshore wind power and today’s conventional power, the result shows that offshore wind power is less than 1⁄2 the total social cost of Delaware’s electricity today.

COLD POOL IMPACT: “Could federal wind farms influence continental shelf oceanography and alter associated ecological processes? A literature review” — a report issued by the Science 3

Center for Marine Fisheries, Rutgers School of Environmental and Biological Sciences, December 1, 20203
3 Authors (all from Rutgers University): Travis Miles, Assistant Research Professor in the Rutgers University Ocean For Observing Leadership (“RUCOOL”). From the Department of Marine & Coastal Science: Sarah Murphy, Graduate Student: Josh Kohut, Professor; Sarah Borsetti, Graduate Student; Daphne Munroe, Associate Professor
Access the report by clicking this link: https://scemfis.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/01/ColdPoolReview.pdf
HIGHLIGHTS:

  • The scale of the impact of current and future wind farms has caused concern about whether these installations have the potential to alter the unique and delicate oceanographic conditions along the expansive Atlantic continental shelf. This region is characterized by a strong seasonal stratification [or layering] that forms on top of cold bottom water, known as the “Cold Pool.”
  • Strong seasonal stratification [layering] traps very cold water above the ocean bottom, which sustains marine life whose range extends farther south than would be anticipated based on latitude alone. This area includes the most lucrative shellfish fisheries in the U.S.
  • Changes in stratification through vertical mixing of water in this seasonally dynamic system could have important consequences in Cold Pool set-up and break-down, a process fundamental to the high fishery productivity of the region.
  • While still limited, there is an increasing body of research focused on the several, specific factors that influence ocean mixing and which, in turn, effect the stratification that is a key characteristic of the Cold Pool.
  • The majority of research to date on offshore wind turbine effects on ocean mixing, however, was carried out in, or simulated to represent, coastal waters around Northern Europe. It is important to recognize that the oceanographic conditions specific to these European study sites differ in many important ways compared to that of the Mid Atlantic Bight Cold Pool.
  • Generally, continental shelf waters in Northern Europe are less layered seasonally and have stronger tidal currents (and higher turbulence) than those of the Mid Atlantic Bight. Thus, results from the European studies characterizing potential impacts of offshore wind facilities on stratification are more representative of what we might expect during the relatively weaker stratified time periods in spring and fall (during Cold Pool set up and breakdown, respectively).
  • During the highly stratified summer months, previous results suggest it is less likely that the wind turbines will cause mixing sufficient to overpower the strong stratification that is present during those times.
  • The potential for these multiple wind energy locations to alter oceanographic processes and the biological systems that rely on them is possible; however, a great deal of uncertainty remains about the nature and scale of these interactions.

2 Authors (all at the University of Delaware): Willett Kempton, Professor, School of Marine Science & Policy; Amy Bosteels, Marine Policy; and Kris Ohleth, Director, SIOW, an independent project at the University of Delaware’s College of Earth, Ocean and Environment that supports the advancement of offshore wind as part of a comprehensive solution to the most pressing energy problems facing the United States.

VISIBILITY OF THE TURBINES FROM SHORE: There has been much discussion about how visible the turbines will be from LBI. Links to two studies are included below. In future Round-Up issues, visibility of the wind turbines at night will be addressed.
1) One of the most mentioned studies in these discussions is the Rutgers visibility study, which was produced by the Center of Observing Ocean Leadership at Rutgers School of Environmental & Biological Sciences. Commissioned and paid for by Atlantic Shores Offshore Wind LLC, the study’s official title is “Initial Visibility Modeling Study for Offshore Wind for New Jersey’s Atlantic Shores Offshore Wind Project.”4
4 Authors: Joseph F. Brodie, Ph.D. Marine Studies University of Delaware & Offshore Research Lead Rutgers Center for Ocean Observing Leadership;(“RUCOOL”); Brian P. Frei, RUCOOL
5 The Rutgers study is part of the Construction and Operations Plan (“COP”) submitted to the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (“BOEM”) by Atlantic Shores. That is why when you click on the link, you end up on the BOEM website where the COP is available for public scrutiny. The COP has numerous appendices attached to it, including Appendix II – M1 Visual Impact Assessment (VIA) – Wind Turbine Area, where you arrive when you click the link.
6 “Technical Report: Visual Impact Assessment — Wind Turbine Area Atlantic Shores Offshore Wind OCS-A 0499” Individual authors are uncredited. EDR’s website is https://www.edrdpc.com/
Access the Rutgers study by clicking on this link: https://www.boem.gov/sites/default/files/documents/renewable-energy/state-activities/Appendix-II-M1-Visual-Impact-Assessment.pdf
NOTE: It is a pain in the neck to find this study, but here is a way to find it quicker than if you were just flailing around: When you click on the link above, it will bring you to the first page of Appendix II-M15 on the website of the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (“BOEM”). The Rutgers study is Attachment H, the last eleven pages of this very long Appendix.
When you see page one of this Appendix, find the vertical scroll bar on the extreme right of your computer screen. Click on that, hold it down and drag it to the very bottom of your screen and then arrow up (or however you jump up pages) to go back eleven pages to the beginning of the Rutgers report.
2) Next is a more recent study specifically focused for the Atlantic Shores project prepared by Environmental Design & Research, Landscape Architecture, Engineering & Environmental Services, D.P.C. (“EDR”)6 The report was updated March 2022.
Access the EDR report by clicking on this link: 5

https://www.boem.gov/sites/default/files/documents/renewable-energy/state-activities/Appendix-II-M1-Visual-Impact-Assessment_0.pdf
SECTION 3.2.3 OF THE EDR STUDY DESCRIBES THE CONCLUSIONS FROM THE RUTGERS STUDY, which are summarized below. Note that the Rutgers report does not specifically reference the leased area east of LBI. In this study, predictive models were used to determine visibility using past meteorological data from the Atlantic City International Airport and the Ocean City Municipal Airport.

HIGHLIGHTS:

  • The degree of turbine visibility depends on a number of factors, including humidity and temperature differences between the air and ocean surface, which causes haziness to occur more frequently offshore.
  • The percentage of daylight hours with a calculated visibility of 10 or more miles is 41%, based on past meteorological studies. Said another way, during 59% of daylight hours in a given year, it is anticipated that all, or the vast majority, of the wind turbines would not be visible from the shore.
  • Based on the results of the Rutgers study, the first row of the wind turbines would be visible approximately 50% of the year, the first two rows, 40% of the year and portions of the nearest four rows could be visible 25% of the year during daylight hours.
  • The mitigating effects of atmospheric conditions could serve to reduce the potential visual impacts during significant portions of the year and, during these low visibility periods, would most likely eliminate visibility entirely from most onshore locations.
  • The average visibility in April, May and June ranged from 2.5 miles to 10 miles at the Atlantic City Airport.
  • The average visibility in July and August ranged from 5 to 12 miles at the same location.
  • The yearly, monthly and summer average visibility each share a trend of increasing visibility from the morning to late afternoon. This is consistent with warmer temperatures during the day lowering the relative humidity and causing higher visibility.

LAWSUIT FILED On January 10, 2022, a lawsuit was filed by Save Long Beach Island, known locally as the LBI Coalition of Wind Without Impact https://www.savelbi.org/
A succinct summary of the lawsuit is provided by Gina G. Scala in her February 2022 article in The Sandpaper7:
7 “Wind Turbine Lawsuit Gains Ground as Officials Take Stand,” The Sandpaper, February 16, 2022
“In its suit, the coalition cited BOEM’s [Bureau of Ocean Energy Management] failure to comply with the National Environmental Policy Act and the U.S. Endangered Species Act during its selection process for turbine placement. 6

The lawsuit contends the selection of the larger ‘wind energy areas’ within which turbines are to be placed should have been preceded and supported by a structural regional environmental impact statement (EIS) process with full public input, something the borough has called for in the past,” Harvey Cedars Mayor Jonathan Oldham wrote in his Feb. 1 letter to Department of the Interior Secretary Deb Haaland.”

Access the full article by clicking on this link:
https://www.thesandpaper.net/articles/atlantic-shores-offshore-wind-scores-new-york-bight-lease-area/
You may need to have a subscription to The Sandpaper to access the article. The Long Beach Island Library on Central Avenue in Surf City also has one copy of the February 16th issue that you may borrow to read in the library.
This Round-Up was prepared by a group of writers and researchers from Long Beach Island, New Jersey. Round-Ups are distributed by the Joint Council of Taxpayers Associations of LBI (JCTA) to the voting representatives of its eleven member organizations, who may choose to distribute this information to the members of their individual taxpayers associations via newsletters, websites and social media.
Questions about the content of Round-Ups can be directed to individual taxpayers associations.

4 Authors: Joseph F. Brodie, Ph.D. Marine Studies University of Delaware & Offshore Research Lead Rutgers Center for Ocean Observing Leadership;(“RUCOOL”); Brian P. Frei, RUCOOL
5 The Rutgers study is part of the Construction and Operations Plan (“COP”) submitted to the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (“BOEM”) by Atlantic Shores. That is why when you click on the link, you end up on the BOEM website where the COP is available for public scrutiny. The COP has numerous appendices attached to it, including Appendix II – M1 Visual Impact Assessment (VIA) – Wind Turbine Area, where you arrive when you click the link.
6 “Technical Report: Visual Impact Assessment — Wind Turbine Area Atlantic Shores Offshore Wind OCS-A 0499” Individual authors are uncredited. EDR’s website is https://www.edrdpc.com/


Computer Generated Rendering of wind farm off LBI  coast.

Could offshore wind turbines spoil the pristine views of the Atlantic Ocean from Long Beach Island and the region’s tourist economy?
Robert “Bob” Stern, founder of Save LBI, a coalition formed to push proposed wind turbine projects further from shore, says New Jersey’s wind energy projects, as they are currently designed, will harm both. Read the rest of the article.

RODA – Don’t Forget Fishermen in the Rush to Expand Wind Energy
April 7, 2021

RODA – Fishing Communities’ Letter on Offshore Wind Advancement
April 7, 2021

Long Beach Island Coalition for Wind Without Impact Letter
March 15, 2021

Local Stakeholders Must Press for Best Wind Plan – Opinion The SandPaper
February 10, 2021

Expert Says Wind Turbines Can Harm LBI Economy – The SandPaper
February 12, 2021

Recreational Fishermen Weigh in on Atlantic Shores’ Plans for Offshore Wind Turbines – The SandPaper
February 7, 2021

Evidence Shows Wind Farms Will Not Affect Shore Tourism – Opinion The SandPaper
February 3, 2021

JCTA – Atlantic Shores Zoom Meeting Transcription
February 3, 2021

Offshore Wind Turbines Must Be Made Less Visible or Else… – Opinion The SandPaper
January 13, 2021